Musculoskeletal system is subjected to constant loads and its individual parts are often injured, particularly affecting the lower limbs. One of the common diseases is arthritis of the ankle – symptoms and treatment of this disease have a number of features, internal inflammation of the ankle can lead to serious consequences. Disease klassificeret the types that occur for certain reasons. There are a number of methods of its diagnostics and therapy.
What is arthritis of the ankle joint
Inflammatory process that is triggered by excessive load on the joints and is characterized by stiffness of composite parts is arthritis of the ankle (ankle). The disease develops rapidly, limiting motor activity, causing a temporary incapacity and even disability. When the first symptoms should immediately contact a doctor. It will put an accurate diagnosis and prescribe therapy. The disease is diagnosed more often in older (60 years), but may occur at any age.
Manifested as acute and chronic forms
This disease is arthritis of the ankle joint – is the symptoms and treatment of specific nature. It occurs in two forms, each of which has its own symptoms:
- Acute inflammation is strongly manifested, is characterized by pronounced manifestations. Rapidly swelling appears in the ankle, raised local temperature. In the event of acute purulent arthritis red leather ankle, there is a high body temperature.
- A chronic form of inflammatory disease has the following symptoms: pain, feeling of stiffness, which is especially pronounced in the morning. Swelling and redness of the skin may occur during the day.
Doctors have identified several types of serious illness. Each type develops due to certain reasons:
- Post-traumatic arthritis – develops after mechanical damage of the ankle (tendons, cartilage, ligaments, joints).
- rheumatoid form – a systemic disease, which is concentrated in the ankle area. Inflammation of the ankle contributes to genetic predisposition, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, lupus.
- Traumatic arthritis – occurs after rupture or stretching of the ankle ligaments, severe bruising and other injuries.
- Periarthritis – inflammation of the tissues that surround the joint shell. The disease may be caused by excessive exercise, regular injuries to the ankle and its soft tissue, genetic abnormalities.
- Reactive arthritis – develops due to intestinal, nasopharyngeal or urinary infection.
Symptoms of arthritis of the ankle
In order to start to diagnose and quickly cure arthritis, you should know about the symptoms of the disease. As a rule, they gradually develop. First a person has pain in the ankle, particularly when significant change in the amplitude of the flexion of the foot. Then there is a serious discomfort in the process of putting on shoes, which is triggered by swelling of the ankle. There are a number of symptoms characteristic of the inflammatory process.
Common symptoms of disease in children and adults is virtually identical. Signs of ankle arthritis are as follows:
- produces redness of the skin near the joint, increases the local temperature;
- the ankle swells, the skin in this area is very stretched;
- there is pain with flexion/extension of the joints;
- casual shoes causes discomfort, becomes uncomfortable, close;
- occurs atrophy of the ankle joint;
- pain is worse with the development of the inflammatory process;
- the limitation of motion of joint function;
- General malaise, significant fever, nausea, headache can signal the occurrence of septic arthritis or infectious disease.
The symptoms of the disease depending on the causes
Each type of arthritis has its own specific symptoms. To make it easier to diagnose disease and prescribe proper treatment, you need to advance study of disease manifestations depending on the reasons for its development:
- Typical symptoms rheumatoid arthritis:
- the disease develops slowly, but eventually begins clearly to progress;
- the defeat of the movable joints on both limbs is at the same time;
- weakness, fatigue;
- the increase in body temperature;
- severe pain, aggravated by hypothermia or physical activity;
- the formation of rheumatoid nodes near the foot.
- Osteoarthritis has the following signs of inflammation:
- pain in the legs, which become stronger towards the end of the day or after long periods of load;
- develops joint deformity which leads to limitation of the foot and reduces physical activity.
- Gouty arthritis of the ankle is accompanied by symptoms such as:
- strong unpleasant pain;
- painful inflammation;
- the formation of nodules on the surface of a movable joint.
- The reactive type is:
- temperature rise;
- General malaise;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- pain in the joints and muscles.
When the first symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to consult a doctor for correct diagnosis. To identify the disease is not always easy, because signs of inflammation of the ankle are similar to the symptoms of other pathologies (arthropathy, arthrosis – a degenerative process, etc.). It is important to establish the presence of the disease until she passed into the last stage or did not develop chronic inflammation. Main diagnostic methods are:
- General analysis of blood, urine. This examination of the ankle needs to detect the body's inflammatory process.
- Ultrasound – a method which allows to establish whether there were violations in the cavity of the ankle and damage to joint tissues.
- A detailed immunological analysis of blood necessary for determination of antibodies to causative agent of disease (rheumatoid factor).
- X – ray is a method of detecting purulent fluid between the bones.
- CT (computed tomography) is the most effective method of diagnosis. It is used for capturing images.
- Biochemistry helps to find localization of the source of the disease and to distinguish it from other similar pathologies.
- Arthroscopy surgery, which is a symbiosis of effective treatment and diagnosis. Special optical instruments are inserted into the joint cavity, which helps to see the ankle from the inside, to drain the inflammatory fluid and to stop the bleeding.
- MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging) is used to establish the presence of abnormalities in the structure of the components of the movable joint.
Treatment of arthritis of the ankle
To achieve maximum effect, you need to follow the recommendations of a physician. The patient is assigned certain methods of treatment and drugs depending on the form of the disease (acute, chronic) or the type (rheumatic, traumatic, etc.). The basic rules of therapy:
- Inflamed movable connection of the bones should be at rest and warm. Patient is prescribed bed rest.
- The discomfort is eliminated with the help of pain pills, creams, injections, ointments, gels.
- Infection affected part of the tibia, treated by antibacterial drugs (antibiotics).
- The doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatories, bracing, and other tools that depends on the individual characteristics and condition of the patient.
To block the inflammatory process and to avoid complications use conservative treatment. As a rule, for each patient individual scheme. The doctor prescribes a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunomodulators, systemic and hormonal medications. If necessary, conservative treatment includes massage, physical therapy, blockade with the introduction of drugs inside the movable bone joint.
When there is a risk of irreversible effects (eg, ankylosis – stiff joint, or arthritis deformans), surgical intervention is required. Often used surgical methods such as:
- Arthroscopy with drainage – carried out in the presence of purulent arthritis. The patient is injected into the joint cavity special drainage, which removes the pus through a microscopic incision.
- Arthrodesis – a procedure in which the splicing sites of the bones of the ankle and the exception is handled in the mobility of the ankle in order to avoid the destruction of cartilage and bone.
- A synovectomy is a surgical procedure in which opening a movable connection through a small incision. Then excised the affected tissue and then bone fragments are removed reaction products (pus, fluid) of the organism to inflammation.
- Arthroplasty – an operation to remove the diseased cartilage and other parts of ankle, joint replacement (replacement of implants).
How to treat the disease
Arthritis of the ankle is eliminated comprehensively carried out the procedure in a hospital, home or is a Spa treatment that depends on the severity and characteristics of the disease. To control pain, inflammation and avoid serious deformation of the ankle are used such methods:
- special massage;
- folk medicine;
Drugs can be taken only as directed by your doctor. If you rely on self-treatment, it is possible to aggravate the disease and to serious complications. For effective treatment of ankle arthritis used such medicines:
- drugs for the joints.
Mandatory prescribe vitamin With folic acid. They are:
- activates and normalizes metabolism;
- start collagen production.
If necessary, the doctor prescribes special exercises. It is necessary to reduce the pain and discomfort. A number of approaches are selected individually for each patient. A sports complex is presented by the following exercises:
- walking in one spot (first performed on the fingers, and then – on the inner and outer side of the foot);
- rolling of the foot from toes to heel, on the left side to the right;
- performing jumps using calf muscles.
If arthritis is diagnosed, the timely treatment of the disease can include massage. This procedure "chases" the blood in the muscles, skin and joints, effectively relieving pain, tension, discomfort, resume normal physical activity. Before you treat arthritis of the ankle joint with the help of massage, you need to consult with your doctor. Therapeutic activities are allowed only with remission of the disease, which can be recognized by these symptoms:
- General health;
- no redness, swelling tissues;
- decrease in pain intensity.
In addition to the above methods, often used physiotherapy. The actions of this plan dilates blood vessels, perfectly relieve pain. The most common treatment – magnetic therapy. The point is this: with a magnet specialist produces a few circular movements in a clockwise direction in the affected bone joints. The procedure lasts 15 minutes. Also conduct impact of ultrasound, electrophoresis, or radiation therapy.
Traditional medicine arthritis
In some cases, comprehensive treatment should be combined with folk remedies. Before using tinctures and compresses must consult a doctor. Here are some effective recipes of traditional medicine:
- Tincture with alcohol for rubbing the patient area. You need to pour rubbing alcohol (500 ml) flowers of the plant bear's ear (50 g). To withstand 2 weeks. Lubricate the ankle in the morning and evening.
- Good results are obtained analgesic poultice. In warm water (200 ml) dissolve 2 tablespoons of sea salt. Apply bandage soaked in medication each day to decrease pain. Duration of therapy – up to 20 days.
Prevention of arthritis of the ankle
To avoid exacerbation of disease or its occurrence, it is recommended to adhere to certain rules. Prevention of the inflammatory process includes the following activities:
- You need to eat more foods containing protein, to reduce the amount of starchy foods and sweets in the diet.
- Should drink fresh compote of fruits and berries, try not to drink carbonated beverages.
- Fresh air is another important component of prevention.
- Every day, perform simple leg exercises, restorative exercises, stick to an active lifestyle.
- Wearing a quality, comfortable Shoe. Visits to the podiatrist twice a year.