Rheumatoid arthritis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in children and adults

This is quite a serious disease which only a few years can turn a perfectly healthy man to helpless invalid. It is known that rheumatoid arthritis is ranked among the category of autoimmune diseases. It develops according to a simple scheme. Different types of leukocytes due to the impact of certain factors rapidly begin to destroy the tissue of your own joints. They swell, and after a while appear erosion. To a lesser degree affects tendons and ligaments. The cartilage is completely destroyed.

Pathology is characterized by chronic progressive inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joint. In most cases this process extends to the feet, knees, joints, hips and hands. As the progression of the disease affects the cartilage bone and joints are deformed. In severe systemic manifestations are possible with a simultaneous vascular lesions of the skin, muscles and heart.

Quid est rheumatoid arthritis

Causes of rheumatoid arthritis

If you know the reasons for developing rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention usually do not cause special difficulties. In addition, this information allows with some probability to prevent further progression of the disease. Prevention, generally based on eliminating the steps of precipitating factors.

The etiology of the disease is not fully understood. Experts have identified a number of factors, which together can trigger the development of disease. The main role belongs to the hereditary predisposition. Normal leukocytes have to kill the alien elements. These include bacteria, viruses, cancer cells. If in the body there is a defect of the immune system at the genetic level, white blood cells gradually lose their ability to recognize "good" and "bad" elements.

Close relatives occurs no transmission of the disease, and predisposition of the immune system to the above-described violation. It can be realized in the form of the disease. The likelihood of rheumatoid arthritis depends on the degree of kinship, as well as the impact of certain factors throughout life. These include the following:

Causa rheumatoid arthritis
  • Smoking. The connection between this addiction and arthritis, scientists noticed back in the 70-ies of the last century. Smoking more than 25 cigarettes a day over a long period of time (over 20 years) increases the risk of disease. Constituents of tobacco smoke affect cells of the immune system, with the result that the latter begins to produce autoantibodies.
  • Gender and age. It is proven that women are more prone to rheumatoid arthritis. The disease can develop at any age, but most often it occurs around 40-50 years.
  • Infection. The patient with rheumatoid arthritis may notice worsening of pathology after the recent SARS.
  • Hormonal disturbances. Scientists have proven that oral contraceptives markedly decreases the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis. Pregnancy in women with this diagnosis often causes remission, and childbirth, in contrast, tend to exacerbate.

Under the influence of the described factors the immune system cells begin to attack the shell elements of the joint, which causes inflammation. The skin in the affected area become hot and painful. The negative effect of immune cells also extends to blood vessels, which explains the out-articular manifestations of the disease.

Stage of development of the disease

syndrome mane rigorem

There are several criteria that accurately categorize the stage of rheumatoid arthritis. The most informative are those that are based on the results of the radiographs.

The definition of stages of rheumatoid arthritis allows you to choose the most effective therapy to prevent possible complications.

Basic justo

Medical examination

Rheumatoid arthritis belongs to the category of chronic diseases of unknown etiology, therefore, its detection is often difficult. In 1997, the American College of rheumatology has proposed several criteria for the diagnosis of this pathology that remain relevant to this day. If you have four of the seven items from the list of symptoms the diagnosis can be considered reliable.

  1. Morning stiffness.
  2. Rheumatoid site.
  3. Lose more than three joints.
  4. A positive rheumatoid factor.
  5. Lose the brush joints.
  6. Radiographic changes.
  7. Symmetric defeat of joints.

Unfortunately, the above symptoms can only be detected in the later stages of the disease. Therefore, if you encounter morning stiffness and pain in the joints, you need to go to the hospital. If there is rheumatoid arthritis, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this disease should be known to every physician.

For confirmation of the final diagnosis of the patient is mandatory designate an x-ray of hands and feet, a blood test to detect rheumatoid factor and erythrocyte sedimentation rate evaluation. After the examination, the doctor selects the appropriate treatment. Usually it is comprehensive and consists of several stages. About each option will describe below.

Basic therapy

To eliminate the "principles of disease" use of basic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs prescribed by a doctor, do not eliminate the pain and other symptoms of the disease. They are designed to interrupt the further development of the disease. The positive effect of the use of drugs is noticeable only after a month of treatment.

Immunosuppressants are also used in therapy . These drugs in rheumatoid arthritis aimed at the artificial depression of protective forces of an organism. Due to the fact that they borrowed from cancer, many are afraid to use them. However, this is a false fear. To treat arthritis used smaller dose, so side effects occur very rarely.

In some cases, patients are prescribed sulfonamides. It is antibacterial drugs that inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The probability of occurrence of side effects is extremely low. Their efficiency is slightly lower compared to immunosuppressive drugs and gold. Positive treatment dynamics in patients with a diagnosis of "rheumatoid arthritis of the fingers" is observed only after six months of such treatment.

Anti-inflammatory drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have analgesic and antipyretic effect . Prescribers in acute pain in the joints. These drugs significantly improve the patient's condition. One has only to stop them, as the disease comes back. NSAIDs are not able to completely overcome the disease, they only eliminate the unpleasant symptoms. Almost all medications have contraindications, so before starting the course of treatment is recommended to consult with your doctor.

Selective drugs for rheumatoid arthritis used not so long ago. This is a new word in modern medical practice. These drugs are designed to significantly reduce the number of side effects because they operate exclusively at the site of inflammation and do not affect other organ systems. Selective drugs selectively block the production of inflammatory substances in the cartilage of the joint. Medications are easy to use. Of the possible disadvantages it should be noted influence on the coagulability of the blood. This, in turn, can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Also to combat rheumatoid arthritis corticosteroids are used . This hormonal drugs designed to reduce pain and morning stiffness in the joints.

Local treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

The drugs described above are not suitable for all patients. There is some idiosyncrasy which is included in components, others do not see a positive therapeutic effect. Therefore, in some cases, doctors resort to local treatment.

In chronic course of the disease using laser irradiation. This therapy gives mild anti-inflammatory effect. Approximately 80% of patients noted improvement of General condition.

Another treatment option is cryotherapy. During the procedure, a specialist effect of deep cooling on the affected joints. Cryotherapy is completely harmless and has no contraindications.

The use of various creams and ointments only provides temporary relief. The fact is that the skin is missing no more than 7% active ingredients. This is not enough to obtain a stable therapeutic effect. Despite the wide range of benefits of treatment with ointments, to their aid resorted to in exceptional cases.

Physical therapy

Proprium nutritionem

After removing the acute form of the disease can be applied massage, and other physiotherapy methods. The thing is that this treatment has a stimulating effect and helps to reduce local inflammation. Data therapies improve blood flow to the affected joints and increase their mobility. In medical practice today is actively used paraffin, UHF, phonophoresis, infrared radiation.

Proper nutrition

Adherence to a strict diet appropriate for patients with a diagnosis of "rheumatoid arthritis". Symptoms, diagnostics and course of the disease allow us to determine its cause. However, regardless of these factors, the adjustment of the diet to offer all patients.

Prevention

Many patients are interested in how to cure rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis sounds scary, but don't be afraid. Unfortunately, a cure of this disease does not exist. It is a chronic process that often requires lifelong therapy. The most important thing – to immediately start.

Today experts from around the world are in constant search of new therapeutic modalities that are not accompanied by side effects. A particularly important issue for women in the position of suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Indeed, in this case, the reception of many drugs is prohibited.

Many will agree that the best treatment of any disease is its prevention. To protect joints doctors recommend to maintain a healthy lifestyle. It refers to the exclusion of all harmful habits, a balanced diet, sufficient physical activity. Not the last role belongs to the immune system and fight against overweight.

Now you know what signs accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of the disease is caused by several inter questions that require only a qualified approach. Rheumatoid arthritis is referred to a category of illnesses with a poor prognosis. If it fails to take all measures to eliminate the inflammatory process, strictly follow the doctor's recommendations, you can bring the pathology into a chronic form.

01.04.2018