Arthritis — what is it, symptoms, causes, extent, the first signs and treatment

Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the joints. Arthritis the person experiences pain during active movements, flexions and tractus, and when walking if the inflamed joints of the feet. Sometimes the skin located over a sore joint, begins to redden, there is a local increase in temperature or a common fever.

Let's take a closer look at what this disease is, what causes the first signs characteristic of him, and what better way to treat arthritis in adults.

arthritis

What is arthritis?

Arthritis is the combined marking of inflammatory diseases of the joints, the main symptom of which is joint pain, especially when walking or use of physical force.

The disease is due to disorders of metabolic processes within the joint resulting in an increase of the synovial membrane, causing tissue proliferation and destruction of cartilage. Excess fluid in the joint leads to stimulation of inflammation and cause pain and fever.

Signs of arthritis can occur gradually, starting with just a feeling of light flow off and discomfort in the joint or bend of the phalanges, and then there is a sharp pain and other symptoms.

Types

Arthritis divided according to localization:

  • monoarthritis – a disease with arthritis of one joint;
  • oligoarthritis (two or three affected area);
  • arthritis – a disease with arthritis of more than 3 joints.

The nature of the changes of arthritis are divided into:

  • inflammatory, which are characterized by the presence of inflammation,
  • degenerative, when there is a first malnutrition of the cartilage, degeneration, change in appearance of the affected joint with its subsequent deformation.

Arthritis can be acute or chronic:

  • Acute arthritis is developing rapidly, accompanied by sharp pain and inflammation in the tissues that pass through 2-3 days.
  • Chronic arthritis progresses, slowly turning into a serious disease.

On the origin of the disease

  • Infectious or suppurative arthritis. Manifested under the influence of some sort of infection.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Formed due to the predominance of infectious and allergic diseases. This kind is more dangerous than the first, as often spills over into chronic inflammation. If rheumatoid arthritis is left untreated, the patient may face problems difficulty walking.
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. This species mainly occurs in children under the age of 16. Unfortunately, the etiology of the disease remains largely unexplored to date, but has serious consequences: difficulty walking and disability of children.
  • Jet. Reactive arthritis occurs predominantly as a result of changes in immunity in people with a hereditary disposition to insufficient utilization of complexes of antigen. Reactive arthritis sometimes as a consequence of many infections. Most often it is the result of suffering enterocolitis.
  • Gouty arthritis. Usually affects one joint, the pain usually develops at night or in the early morning hours, in the absence of treatment, the attacks recur more often and last longer in the blood increased levels of uric acid.
  • Osteoarthritis. The joints fail within a few years. A characteristic feature – the crunch in the fingers or toes. Dangerous, that can affect the spine. Can begin to swell and hurt.
  • Traumatic. Is manifested in the presence of open and closed injuries of the joints and in the case of a recurring lung injuries.
  • Rheumatism is a chronic disease of connective tissue with a primary lesion of the heart and joints. Etiology is also unclear, as the causes of rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Osteoarthritis a form of arthritis in which affects purely the joints and periarticular tissue, without hitting other organs.
causes of arthritis

Reasons

A definite and exact cause of arthritis is not currently defined, but doctors have identified some factors that can trigger the development of arthritis. Let's consider them:

  • infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses;
  • allergies;
  • the metabolic disorders;
  • trauma;
  • the deficiency of vitamins (avitaminosis);
  • insufficient intake of nutrients
  • diseases of the nervous system;
  • disorders of the immune system;
  • excessive load on the joints;
  • poor diet, including consumption of alcoholic beverages;
  • overweight;
  • disorders in the endocrine glands;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • insect stings, such as wasps, bees, etc.;
  • hypothermia (hypothermia);
  • some diseases are: tuberculosis, brucellosis, gout, dysentery, gonorrhoea.

Factors such as these cause quite a serious blow to the joints that over time may cause the development of arthritis. In addition, among the main reasons causing the formation of inflammatory process in the connective elements are excessive physical activity, trauma, metabolic disorders, diseases of the nervous system.

Also the appearance of arthritis contribute to hereditary diseases of joints and bones, Smoking and obesity.

The symptoms of arthritis

The leading symptom of the disease arthritis is pain in one or more joints. First, they are weak and practically does not affect normal human life. Over time, increases pain syndrome: pain become waves, amplifying at movement, at night and towards morning. The intensity of the pain varies from mild to very strong, sharply hindering any movement.

Secondary symptoms:

  • morning stiffness,
  • swelling,
  • redness of the skin,
  • increased local temperature in the area of inflammation,
  • the deterioration of motor activity of the patient,
  • the restriction of his mobility,
  • the formation of persistent deformations of the joints.

It is important to remember that the first signs of arthritis manifested by pain. In the initial stages they are expressed weakly, in the acute phase is highlighted, and in chronic arthritis can vary (mild to locutus est vehementer, and Vice versa). As mentioned above, signs may vary in different types of the disease.

types of arthritis
Types of arthritis Symptoms
Jet
  • pain in the joints redness, swelling, mobility problems,
  • inflammation of the eye: conjunctivitis — redness of eyes, burning sensation in eyes, lacrimation;
  • inflammation of the urinary tract: urethritis — pain, burning or cramps when urinating.
Rheumatoid
  • In rheumatoid arthritis joints are symmetrically affected, and in the bend formed dense nodules.
  • During remission the discomfort is felt primarily in the mornings and almost disappears in the second half of the day.
  • Exacerbations are accompanied by fever, numbness of limbs, pain in breathing, inflammation of lymph nodes and salivary glands, photophobia and pain in the eyes.
Infectious Is characterized by:

  • a sharp rise in temperature;
  • chills;
  • headaches;
  • weakness;
  • swelling of the periarticular tissues.

To determine the type of infection using the tests.

Gouty attack
  • In most cases affects the first joint of the big toe, though the disease can occur in the knee and elbow.
  • The site of inflammation reddens, swells and hurts.
Psoriatic Distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis are lose:

  • small joints of hands and feet,
  • dissymmetry of defeat (unlike rheumatoid arthritis),
  • often over a sore joint, the skin gets purple-bluish in color (if it affects the joints of the fingers often develops swelling, covering the whole finger — "finger in the form of sausages").
Osteoarthritis
  • is that the joints get sick very slowly and gradually, as the disease progresses.
  • Also a characteristic feature is the crunch.
  • I marvel at how the limbs and the spine;
Traumatic arthritis
  • develops in the type of osteoarthritis. The symptoms are the same – the pain, swelling and crunching in the place where the inflammatory process has begun.

The extent of the disease

Arthritis symptoms in stages are different manifestations of the pain and aggravation of pathological processes. So, if the disease flows in a complicated form, and the symptoms will be more noticeable. Consider all four phases of arthritis:

1 degree

Clinically, the disease does not manifest itself, however the x-rays of the joints are the first signs of inflammation. Sometimes there is a slight stiffness and recurrent pain during exercise.

2 the degree of arthritis

Progressive inflammation leads to thinning of the tissues of the articular structures and erosion of bones heads. In the area of the affected joints appear swollen; often observed local increase in temperature and redness of the skin, movements are accompanied by a crunch.

3 degree

The third degree of the disease is characterized by the following features:

  • X-ray examination shows severe deformation;
  • Often the person at this stage assign a disability;
  • Mobility is limited, the patient may find it difficult to move around if the damaged lower torso;
  • Hand movements are performed with great difficulty. The patient becomes difficult to perform even the most basic actions to care for themselves. The hands are symmetrically affected;
  • Pain pursues him, even when he is at rest;
  • Due to muscle spasm caused by pain of the limb are fixed in an incorrect position. This ultimately leads to greater deformation of the joints.

Arthritis 4 degrees

complications

Leads to almost complete immobility of the damaged joints, with strong round-the-clock pain. To move on their own is impossible. Negative changes in the bones have already become irreversible. With the defeat of the tribes, the formation of muscle contractures.

Complications

Ignoring the symptoms of arthritis can lead to serious complications causing other diseases:

  • Diseases of internal organs.
  • Heart failure.
  • Soft tissue injuries.
  • Ruptures of tendons.
  • Dislocation of the spine.
  • Numbness of hands and feet.

Despite the fact that arthritis is a common phenomenon faced by most people, treatment should be taken seriously. Timely diagnosis and treatment will help to maintain the flexibility and mobility of joints, which will give an opportunity to lead an active lifestyle even in old age.

Treatment of arthritis

Than before to worry about the treatment, the greater will be the benefit. The first stage of arthritis affect the joints already, and the process with proper treatment to slow down quite feasible. Developed special exercises physical therapy, they are administered in a period of improvement, so that the muscles develop flexibility. Also prescribe effective medication.

Treatment of arthritis depends on the form and stage of disease. So at the first signs, be sure to consult a specialist and do not self-medicate.

Medication for arthritis

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Methods involving the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are required for treatment of any illnesses related to musculoskeletal disorders.

The choice of these drugs depends on the individual characteristics of the human body, age, type of disease, presence of diseases that prohibits the administration of non-steroid funds.

  • Painkillers for external use
pills for arthritis

This group of medicines are prescribed against the pain syndrome in diseases of musculoskeletal system. They are applied topically – to the skin over the joint. The main advantage of this method of application is that the components of the drug are absorbed directly into the affected tissues, bypassing the path through the gastrointestinal tract.

How to treat arthritis without drugs?

The reduction of stress on sore joints:

  • selection of orthopedic shoes with a comfortable sole;
  • reduction of body weight;
  • the use of knee pads, arch supports, canes, walking;
  • a complex of therapeutic physical culture, which can be performed in different initial positions and in the water.

Exercises should not cause discomfort and cause of pain. Squats and exercises with bent knees should be excluded. Recommended use of the pool.

Physiotherapy:

  • treatment warm;
  • magnetic therapy for the joints;
  • ultrasound;
  • massage;
  • hydrotherapy;
  • acupuncture;
  • laser therapy;
  • electropulse stimulation of the muscles.

For the purpose of any physiotherapy the patient should be no contraindications. The patient needs to get rid of bad habits and drinking coffee in large quantities.

Surgical treatment

When damage to some or all of the tissue cannot be cured by pills, injections, ointments or physical therapy, there are different surgical methods:

  • arthroscopic synovectomy – removal of synovial membrane fragment;
  • transplantation of cartilage from a healthy joint is taken cartilage grown in the laboratory and replanted in the damaged;
  • joint replacement prosthesis;
  • implantation of a metal spacer parts in the joints, simulating articular surface.

To invasive methods of treatment of arthritis also include puncture and lavage of the synovial cavity with different drugs.

06.12.2018